Model of study and experimental design
Twenty adult male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were imported from Mauritius to study early state (six animals) and adaptive (14 animals) responses. The macaques weighed between 4 and 9 kg. Animals were housed in CEA facilities (accreditation number: B 92-032_02), and handled in accordance with European guidelines for NHP care (EU Directive N 2010/63/EU). The CEA complies with the Standards for Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Office for Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW, USA) under OLAW Assurance number #A5826-01. This study was approved by the regional committee for the use and care of animals (Comité Régional d’Ethique Ile de France Sud, reference 11_013). Before the beginning of the study, the animals were confirmed to be seronegative for several pathogens (SIV, STLV, filovirus, HBV, herpes B, and measles). Animals were sedated with ketamine (10–20 mg/kg, Imalgene 1000, Rhone-Mérieux, Lyon, France) and 10% of acepromazine (Vtranquil, Ceva Santé Animale, France) during handling.